Research in seed science and technologies has been one of the strengths of the OSU Seed Laboratory. The constant contact of the lab with thousands of customers facing seed testing and management issues, gives the lab a unique capacity to generate highly applicable research to solve pressing problems. Some of our research is conducted with our own funds, while other larger projects are funded with grants,contracts or fees. Currently, the research and development at the OSU Seed Lab focuses on five areas:
Through publication, the results of research are shared with the greater scientific, testing, and production community.
Mechanization and automation of seed testing and seed separations
The purpose of this area of research is to incorporate or introduce new technologies to solve problems and develop methods that can better respond to current and future industry needs. The ultimate goal in this area is to simplify procedures, increase efficiency, and assure quality.
The objective of research in this area is to speed up germination, assure germination uniformity and to verify plant types through grow-out testing and performance by several means: breaking dormancy efficiently, improving scarification methods, chemical-physical treatments and additives, and by accelerating plant development for effective species identification.
Research projects in this area focus on traits that define the value of seeds in the market, particularly for seeds produced or used in Oregon.
We have an advanced information system that contains information and test results of approximately 30,000 tests every year. This information can be used to analyze data on purity, germination, specific contaminants, and other quality attibutes by crops, years, companies, warehouse, etc. It can be used to generate research to understand and solve problems, to assist customers on seed management programs, and to plan innovations for the lab or customers.
This customer-driven area focuses on any seed related research in response to specific needs of others including research, extension, and industry customers that are working on seed related projects. The following are some examples that were completed in the last few years:
Future projects in this area are open to the needs of customers in seed related areas, such as: moisture content, purity, germination, vigor, seed identification, ploidy, TZ, seed search in soil or compost or feed pellets, etc. If you have a need or idea, bring it up to the lab and we may be able to assist in designing the study, performing experiments, and analyzing data.
OSU Seed Lab researchers and other staff contribute regularly to seed testing research in many different ways, including refereed journals, books and industry magazines and newsletters. Highlighted names are seed lab staff.
Elias, S., R. Baalbaki, and M. McDonald. 2016. Seed Moisture Testing. In Seed Technologists Training Manual. SCST, Washington D.C.
Baalbaki, R., S. Elias, L.O. Copeland, and H. Liu. 2016. Seed Testing Tolerances”. In Seed Technologists Training Manual. SCST, Washington D.C.
Gadotti, I.G., S.G. Elias, and A.E. Garay. 2016.Upgrading Seed Quality of Ryegrass Using a Blowing Procedure. Seed Technol. 37(2): 161-172.
Soares, V.N., Elias, S.G., Gadotti, G.I., Garay, A.E., and Villela, F.A. 2016. Can the Tetrazolium Test be Used as an Alternative to the Germination Test in Determining Seed Viability of Grass Species? Crop Sci. 57: 1-9.
Elias, S. and A. Garay. 2016. Eliminate the use of the Multiple Unit Procedure in fine fescues (Festuca spp.) as described in the AOSA Rules, Vol. 1. Portland, OR.
Elias, S. and A. Garay. 2016. Replace the current AOSA formula to determine the proportions of annual and perennial ryegrass in the pure (ryegrass) seed component from the purity analysis based on the fluorescence test. Portland, OR.
Baalbaki, R. and S. Elias. 2016. Clarify the rounding procedure for germination test results. Portland, OR.
Baalbaki, R. and S. Elias. 2016. Clarify use of tables 14I and 14J for all germination test components. Portland, OR.
2016. Brazil. Agriculture in the US and in Brazil. Presented at the Federal University of Pelotas
Angsumalee, D. and S.G. Elias. 2015. Changes in Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid contents of red clover during seed development and maturation. CSSA. Minneapolis, MN.
Zhang, J., S. Elias, R. Reed, and J. Kling. 2015. Glucosinolate Content Change during Seed Development and Maturation of Meadowfoam. CSSA. Minneapolis, MN.
Elias, S. and A. Garay. 2015. Modify the pure seed unit definition for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by adding a special consideration statement to PSU 21. Tampa, FL.
Meyer, D. and S. Elias. 2015. Clarify how to determine special tolerances for mixtures of kinds using the short method and the long method and to clarify how to calculate the particle-weight ratio for mixtures in which one or more components is coated. Tampa, FL.
2015. Nepal. The role of seed science in improving food security. Presented at the Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan.
2015. Nepal. Recent advances in seed science and technology. Presented in the Ag Research center, NARI Hall, NARC complex, Khumaltar, Katmandu.
2015. Uruguay. The use of uniform blowing procedures in seed cleaning. Presented in the National Seed Lab in Montevideo.
2015. Uruguay. Germination and dormancy studies in ryegrass. Presented in the National Ag. Res. Institute (INIA) in Treinta Tres.
2015. Brazil. How graduate students prepare themselves to take an active role in solving real problems in their field of study. Presented at the Federal University of Pelotas.
Alderman, S., S.G. Elias, and A. Hulting. 2014. Occurrence and trends of weed seed and ergot contaminants in Poa pretenses and Poa trivialis seed lots in Oregon. Seed Technol. 35(2): 237-250.
Garay, A., and S.G. Elias. 2013. New blowing procedure using master calibration samples and air velocity monitoring: A model developed with orchardgrass and Kentucky bluegrass. Seed Technol. 35(1): 69-81.
Elias, S.G., and A. E. Garay. 2013. Expression of germination and fluorescence in annual ryegrass samples after seven and fourteen-day germination period. Seed Prod. Res., Oregon State Univ. Crop & Soil Sci. Dep. Ext/CrS 143, 4/13.
Elias, S.G., and A. E. Garay. 2013. Feasibility of reducing the duration of germination and fluorescence tests in perennial ryegrass. Seed Prod. Res., Oregon State Univ. Crop & Soil Sci. Dep. Ext/CrS 143, 4/13.
Elias, S., and R. Baalbaki. 2013. Revise Table 14K. ‘Tolerances for fungal endophyte tests when results are based on 30 to 400 seeds, seedlings, or plants in a test.’ Also, modify the title of the table to be more descriptive to the functions of the table, and add examples on how to use the table. Boise, ID.
2013. Canada. Designing seed science and technology research. Experimental design and data analysis. Presented to the Canadian Seed Lab (CFIA) in Saskatoon.
Seed Testing: Principles and Practices. 2012. Elias, S.E. L.O. Copeland, M.B. McDonald, and R.Z. Baalbaki. Michigan State University Press.
Alderman, S., S.G. Elias, and A. Hulting. 2012. Occurrence and trends of weed seed contamination in bentgrass seed lots in Oregon. Seed Technol. 34(2): 39-51.
Elias, S. and R. Baalbaki. 2012. The use of Trueness to Variety Tolerances in Seed Testing. Seed Technol., Abstracts: AOSA/SCST meeting. J. Seed Technol. 34(2): 289.
Garay, A. and S. Elias. 2012. Effect of factoring procedure of multiple seed units on purity testing results of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Seed Technol., Abstracts: AOSA/SCST meeting. J. Seed Technol. 34(2): 290.
Elias, S. and A. Garay. 2012. Eliminate the factoring procedure used to determine the amount of inert matter attached to multiple seed units in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) as described in sec 3.7 of the Rules. Des Moines, IA
2012. Canada. Variability and tolerances in seed testing. Presented in ISTA Statistics seminar in Ottawa.
H. Liu, L.O. Copeland, and S.G. Elias. 2011. Variability in Soybean Seed Counts Determined by Electronic and Manual Methods. Seed Technol. 33(2): 122-133.
Alderman, S., S. G. Elias, and A. Hulting. 2011. Occurrence and trends of weed seed contamination in fine fescue seed lots in Oregon. Seed Technol. 33(1): 7-21.
Elias, S. and A. Garay. 2010. The value of fluorescence and grow-out tests in differentiating annual and perennial ryegrass. Seed Technol., Abstracts: AOSA/SCST meeting. J. Seed Technol. 32(2): 147.
Baalbaki, R., M. B. McDonald, S. G. Elias, and J. M. Filho. 2009. Seed vigor testing handbook. Association of Official Seed Analysts. Contribution no. 32.
Elias, S.G., and E.K. Nelson. 2009. Impact of glyphosate tolerance gene on seed quality of transgenic bentgrass. Seed Sci. & Technol. 37: 350-364.
Seed Vigor Testing Handbook. 2009. Baalbaki, R., S. Elias, J. M. Filho, and M. B. McDonald. Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA). Contribution No. 32. Washington, D.C.
Elias, S., and A. Garay. 2008. Effect of germination and fluorescence on plant type produced in ryegrass. Abstract: 2008 AOSA/SCST Meeting. Seed Technol. 30:87-88.
Elias, S. G. and A. Garay. 2008. Effect of pre-chilling treatment on the germination and fluorescence of perennial ryegrass. In W.C. Young III (ed.), Seed Production Research at Oregon State University. Department of Crop and Soil Science Ext/Crs 127, 3/08.
Elias, S., S. Maguire, and A. Miller. 2008. Suggested tolerances for tetrazolium tests. Abstract: 2008 AOSA/SCST Meeting. Seed Technol. 30:93.
Garay, A., S. Elias, and H. Nott. Methodology to develop a uniform blowing procedure in grass seeds: an example with tall fescue. Abstract: 2008 AOSA/SCST Meeting. Seed Technol. 30:885-86.
Garay, A., H. Nott, and S. Elias. 2008. Better alternative to breaking multiple seed units in tall fescue. Abstract: 2008 AOSA/SCST Meeting. Seed Technol. 20:86-87.
Elias, S., S. Maguire, and A. Miller. 2008. Developing tolerance tables for Tetrazolium tests. Submitted to the AOSA/SCST annual meeting St. Paul, MN June 2008.
Elias, S. and D. Meyer. Changing Table 8.1, a noxious weed tolerance table. 2008. Developing tolerance tables for tetrazolium tests. Submitted to the AOSA/SCST annual meeting St. Paul, MN June 2008.
A. Garay, S. Elias, and D. Meyer. 2008. Standard Blowing Procedure for tall fescue. Part A. Dealing with lightweight inert matter. Submitted at the AOSA/SCST annual meeting St. Paul, MN June 2008.
A. Garay, S. Elias, and D. Meyer. 2008. Standard Blowing Procedure for tall fescue. Part B. Dealing with Multiple florets. Submitted at the AOSA/SCST annual meeting St. Paul, MN June 2008.AOSA Rules for Testing Seeds.
Elias, S., R. Baalbaki, and M. McDonald. 2007. Seed moisture determination: principles and procedures. Handbook on Seed Testing, Contribution no. 40. Association of Official Seed Analysts.
Elias, S. and R. Baalbaki. 2007. Determination of dormant seed in the AOSA Rules. Seed Technologist Newsletter, 81 (2) p. 42-43.
Elias, S.G., A. Garay, W.C. Young, and T.G. Chastain. 2007. Maintaining optimum seed quality in storage - storing grass seeds in Oregon. In W.C. Young III (ed.), Seed Production Research at Oregon State University. Department of Crop and Soil Science Ext/Crs 126, 4/07.
Garay, A., S. Elias, and H. Nott. 2007. Uniform blowing procedure to assess light inert in tall fescue samples. Seed Technologist Newsletter, 81 (2) p. 43-50.
Garay, A. and S. Elias. 2007. Ploidy by cytometry - new applications. Seed Technologist Newsletter, 81 (2) p. 51-52.
Trento, S., S. Elias, A. Garay, and J. Zavala. 2007 Comparison of Endophyte detection in fescue and ryegrass seed using an immunoblot assay and microscopic method. Seed Sci. & Technol. 35: 65-74.
Trento, S., S. Elias, and A. Garay. 2007. Use of ELISA to differentiate between toxic and non-toxic endophyte in tall fescue seeds. Seed Technol. 29 (1): 60-67.
Seed Moisture Determination: principles and procedures. 2007. Elias, S., R. Baalbaki, and M. McDonald. Contribution No. 40, Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA). Washington, D.C.
Elias S., R. Baalbaki, and M. McDonald. 2007. Seed moisture determination: Principles and procedures. Submitted to the annual meeting of the AOSA/SCS. Cody, WY. June 2007.
Elias, S. and D. Meyer. 2007. Introducing new noxious weed tolerances. Submitted to the annual meeting of the AOSA/SCST. Cody, WY. June 2007.
Elias, S. G. 2006. Seed Quality Testing. p. 561-601. In A. S. Basra (ed.) Handbook of seed science and technology. Haworth Press Inc., N.Y.
Elias, S., A. Garay, J. Zavala, and S. Alderman. 2006. Laboratory test to detect the presence of small broomrape (Orobanche minor Smith) in red clover. Seed Technol. 28(1): 73-79.
Elias, S., A. Garay, L. Schweitzer, and S. Hanning. 2006. Seed quality testing of native species. Native Plants J. 7(1): 15-19.
Garay, A., S. Elias and H. Nott. 2006. Referee results - new blowing procedure of orchardgrass and Kentucky bluegrass using uniform calibration sample and air velocity calibration. Crop and Soil News/Notes OSU Extension Service Vol. 20, No. 4.
Garay, A., S. Elias and S. Hanning. 2006. Soil seed-bank test. Crop and Soil News/Notes OSU Extension Service Vol. 20, No. 2.
Schweitzer, L.R., M.E. Mellbye, G.A. Gingrich, and S.E. Elias. 2006. Exploring alternatives to enhance weed control during grass seed crop establishment. In W.C. Young III (ed.), Seed Production Research at Oregon State University. Department of Crop and Soil Science Ext/Crs 125, 4/06.
Garay, A., Elias, S. and D. Meyer. 2006. Standard blowing procedure for Orchardgrass, Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses using air velocity calibration. Submitted to the annual meeting of the AOSA/SCST. Indianapolis, IN June 2006.
Elias, S., and D. Meyer. 2006. Changes in the purity tolerance Tables in the AOSA
Rules. Submitted to the annual meeting of the AOSA/SCST Indianapolis, IN June 2006.
Elias, S. and D. Meyer. 2005. The need for updating the purity tolerances in the AOSA Rules. Seed Technologist Newsletterd, 79 (1) p. 27-40.
Elias, S., A. Garay and S. Hanning. 2005. Grow-out test for ryegrass - a useful supplement to the fluorescence test. Crop and Soil News/Notes OSU Extension Service. Vol. 19, No. 1.
Garay, A., S. Elias and S. Hanning. 2005. Useful tests for ryegrass seeds. Crop and Soil News/Notes OSU Extension Service. Vol. 19, No. 1.
Garay, A., S. Elias and H. Nott. 2005. Feasibility of developing blowing procedure for ryegrass using air velocity calibration. Seed Technologist Newsletter, 79 (2) p. 26.
Garay, A., S. Elias and H. Nott. 2005. Developing standard seed blowing procedures using air velocity calibration. Seed Technologist Newsletter, 79 (3) p. 41-46.
Genovesi1, A. D., M. C. Engelke and S. G. Elias. 2005. Interspecific Hybridization between Pembagrass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum) and St. Augustinegrass (S. secundatum) Using Embryo Rescue. ASA. Salt Lake City, UT.
Efrain Cruz-Cruz1, Douglas E. Johnson, and S. G. Elias. 2005. Seed germination and dormancy of Amelanchier (H.B.K.) Koch from Oaxaca, Mexico. Society of Range Management.
Our mission is to generate and implement research that will improve performance, ergonomics, efficiency, and equipment within the seed industry. These improvements will facilitate solving seed testing constraints, the reduction of costs, and development or adoption of new technologies and/or tests depending on specific seed industry needs.
Most of seed testing methods used today were developed more than half a century ago. In the modern industry, there has been an increasing trend in the globalization of the seed industry that has led to intensified competition among seed producers. As a result, there is a growing need to achieve higher levels of efficiency and precision by improving seed testing techniques, developing new tests and equipment and reducing testing costs
Customer-driven research projects for seed companies, research and extension educators
The Oregon State University Seed Laboratory has the capacity to carry out various research studies related to seed quality and help its customers answer questions in a variety of areas. Following are some examples of our research studies that were completed: